PASTOUREAUX

PASTOUREAUX ("Shepherds"), the name given to the participants in two popular Crusades in France called against the Muslims in Spain. The first movement emerged in Picardy in 1251, inspired by a leader who called himself the "ruler of Hungary." Claiming to have had a vision in which the Virgin Mary ordered him to take up the cross, he rapidly gathered 30,000 adherents, mainly young men and women, who marched toward the south. This group of Pastoureaux did not attack the Jews until they arrived in Bourges: there they broke into synagogues, destroyed books, and robbed the Jews. At Bordeaux they were turned back by the seneschal of Gascony and dispersed. A similar movement arose in the southwest in 1320. Jewish chroniclers (solomon ibn verga , joseph ha-kohen , and samuel usque ) telescoped these two movements by attributing to the second the beginnings of the first. This time the religious aim of waging war against the Muslims in Spain was accompanied by a social revolt against the rich and the higher clergy. Thus, the civil and religious authorities swiftly intervened against the crusaders, and philip v the Tall and Pope john xxii called on them to protect the Jews. In fact, the Pastoureaux turned first against the Jews, intending to use their riches to purchase weapons; they also put to death those Jews who refused to accept baptism. The anti-Jewish persecutions first began in agen or Agenais, bordeaux or Bourdeilles, gascony and Bigorre, Mont-de-Marsan and Condom, Auch, Rabastens, Gaillac, albi , Lezat, and especially Verdun-sur-Garonne and castelsarrasin , where several hundreds of Jews were killed or committed suicide. The events at toulouse were reported by an eyewitness, the German Jew Baruch, who was employed as a teacher by the local Jewish community. The viscount of Toulouse, who had been informed of the massacre perpetrated by the Pastoureaux in Castelsarrasin and the neighboring localities between June 10 and 12, set out at the head of an armed detachment in order to check their advance. He returned with 24 cartloads of Pastoureaux, intending to imprison them in a castle of the town, but the populace came to their assistance and released them. At once they invaded the Jewish quarter, looting the houses and putting to death anyone who refused baptism. When they marched toward carcassone , extremely severe repressive measures were taken against them. A number succeeded in reaching Aragon, where they persecuted the Jews anew, particularly in montclus . King James II of Aragon ordered the suppression of the Pastoureaux, and on this occasion many of them were slaughtered. According to Jewish chroniclers, 120 communities suffered at the hands of the Pastoureaux, and this appears to be an accurate estimate. Baruch also relates that although the pope called upon the authorities to protect the Jews, the Inquisition would not allow those who had been forcibly baptized to return to Judaism. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. de Vic and J.J. Vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc… (1730), passim; S. Grayzel, in: HJ, 17 (1955), 89–120; J. Duvernoy (ed.), Registre d'inquisition de Jacques Fournier, évêque de Pamiers (1965). (Bernhard Blumenkranz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • PASTOUREAUX — Membres d’un mouvement populaire d’allure hérétique qui se développa au XIIIe et réapparut au XIVe siècle. En 1251, un homme qu’on appelle Maître Jacques de Hongrie se met à prêcher en Picardie, prétendant avoir reçu la mission de rassembler des… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Pastoureaux — Croisade des Pastoureaux Deux insurrections populaires portent ce nom et font partie des croisades populaires initiées sans l appui des puissants et même souvent contre eux. Ces croisades datent de 1251 et de 1320. Sommaire 1 La première croisade …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pastoureaux — (French: shepherds ) Participants in two outbreaks of mob violence in medieval France. The first Pastoureaux were peasants in northeastern France aroused by news in 1251 of the reverses suffered by King Louis IX while on his Crusade. Accusing the …   Universalium

  • Pastoureaux — Der Name Hirtenkreuzzug, auch Pastorellen, ferner Schäfersekte, Pastoureaux; englisch Shepherds Crusade; französisch Croisade des Pastoureaux, bezieht sich auf zwei verschiedene Ereignisse aus dem 13. und 14. Jahrhundert. der Hirtenkreuzzug von… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • pastoureaux — (francés: pastorcillos). Participantes en dos estallidos de violencia masiva en la Francia medieval. Los primeros pastoureaux fueron campesinos del norte de Francia que se levantaron en 1251 al saber de los infortunios sufridos por el rey Luis IX …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Pastoureaux, Crusade of the — • One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Croisade des Pastoureaux — La croisade des Pastoureaux La croisade des Pastoureaux est le nom porté par deux insurrections populaires portent qui font partie des croisades populaires initiées sans l appui des puissants et même souvent contre eux. Ces croisades datent de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Croisade Des Pastoureaux — Deux insurrections populaires portent ce nom et font partie des croisades populaires initiées sans l appui des puissants et même souvent contre eux. Ces croisades datent de 1251 et de 1320. Sommaire 1 La première croisade des Pastoureaux 1.1… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Révolte des Pastoureaux — Croisade des Pastoureaux Deux insurrections populaires portent ce nom et font partie des croisades populaires initiées sans l appui des puissants et même souvent contre eux. Ces croisades datent de 1251 et de 1320. Sommaire 1 La première croisade …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Crusade of the Pastoureaux —     Crusade of the Pastoureaux     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Crusade of the Pastoureaux     One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. St. Louis, King of France, had gone on the Crusade (1248) …   Catholic encyclopedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.